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Enjoy & Learn


Juicy English, Fruitful English

Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes.

How can you get to this level? Use JUICY ENGLISH, FRUITFUL ENGLISH (fruitful– producing many useful results, productive; juicy–interesting because you find it shocking or exciting; attractive because it will bring you a lot satisfaction)!

Fruit in its strict botanical sense is the fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds. Apples, apricots, bananas, and grapes, as well as bean pods, corn kernels, mustard, star anise, tomatoes, cucumbers, and (in their shells) acorns, walnuts and almonds, are all technically fruits. Popularly, however, the term is restricted to the ripened ovaries that are sweet and either succulent or pulpy.

Fruits are so varied in form and development, that it is difficult to devise a classification scheme that includes all known fruit. There are two broad categories of fruits: fleshy fruits (owoce mięsiste) and dry fruits (owoce suche). Fleshy fruits include berries (jagody); stone fruits (pestkowce), fleshy pomes (owoce rzekome), citrus fruits and tropical fruits. In the culinary sense, a fruit is usually any sweet tasting plant product associated with seed(s), a vegetable is any savoury or less sweet plant product, and a nut any hard, oily, and shelled plant product.

PARTS OF A FRUIT

- the outer covering of a fruit: skin, peel
- the thick rather hard outer covering of certain fruits, especially of the melon and lemon: rind
- the hard outer part of nuts: shell
- the dry outer covering of nuts, fruits and seeds: husk
- a small seed in an apple, orange, lemon, etc: pip
- the large seed in certain fruits, for example plums and peaches: stone
- thin stem that supports a fruit and joins it to another part of the plant or tree: stalk
- the stalk of a flower or fruit, or of a cluster of flowers or fruits: peduncle
- the hard centre of apples, pears, etc: core
- the solid part of a fruit that we eat: flesh, pulp
- the liquid part of a fruit: juice
- a part shaped like a bag inside an orange containing liquid: juice sac

GROWING FRUIT

- different kinds of fruit grow on a: bush, tree, plant gooseberry bush, pear trees, strawberry plants
- a piece of land where fruit trees are grown: orchard apple orchard
- a small area of land with fruit trees of a particular type on it: grove an orange grove, olive groves on the hillside
- a large area of land, especially in a hot country, where crops such as bananas are grown: plantation
- grapes grow on a vine; the place where grapes are grown: vineyard
- a number of fruits growing together: bunch a bunch of grapes/bananas

FRUIT OR FRUITS?

Some are always countable Do you like bananas?, some may be countable or uncountable, depending on whether you are thinking of them as plants or as food Eat plenty of fresh fruit and on how they are prepared as food. If you are thinking of a fruit as a plant it is usually the whole fruit, so it will be countable Plant the strawberries in rows. Larger fruit, that you do not eat whole, are uncountable as food duck with watermelon. Others may be eaten whole (countable) baked apples or prepared in such a way that they are not eaten whole (uncountable in British English but still countable in American English) stewed apple (BrE)/stewed apples (NAmE).

fruit 1. the part of a plant that consists of one or more seeds and flesh, can be eaten as food and usually tastes sweet; 2. (technical) a part of a plant or tree that is formed after the flowers have died and in which seeds develop; 3. usually plural (literary) all the natural things that the earth produces
a piece of fruit an apple, an orange, etc.
the fruit/fruits of something the good results of an activity or a situation: to enjoy the fruits of your labours (the rewards for your hard work)
bear fruit to have a successful result
forbidden fruit a thing that is not allowed and that therefore seems very attractive
fruitful producing many useful results, productive: a fruitful collaboration/discussion
fruition (formal) the successful result of a plan, a process or an activity: After years of hard work, their plans finally came to fruition.
fruity 1. smelling or tasting strongly of fruit: The wine from this region is rich and fruity; 2. a fruity voice or laugh is deep and strong in a pleasant way; 3. (NAmE, informal) (of people)
slightly crazy
juicy 1. (approving) containing a lot of juice and good to eat: soft juicy pears; 2. (informal) interesting because you find it shocking or exciting: juicy gossip; 3. (informal) attractive because it will bring you a lot of money or satisfaction:
a juicy prize
juice something up (informal, especially NAmE) to make something more exciting or interesting; to improve something by making it more interesting, attractive or powerful

FRUITY ABC

A–APPLE
apple of discord a cause of argument (from the story in classical mythology in which a golden apple with “For the Fairest” written on it causes an argument between the goddesses Hera, Athena,
and Aphrodite)
rotten apple one bad person who has a bad effect on others in a group
apple polisher a person who tries to win favour by being very helpful and praising someone in an insincere way
apple pie apples baked in a dish with pastry on the bottom, sides and top Apple pie is considered by Americans to be something that is typically American: as American as apple pie; used to represent an idea of perfect home life and comfort. Americans often say that nothing is better than mom and apple pie.
in apple-pie order in perfect arrangement or order; the state of being very carefully and neatly arranged
apple-pie bed a bed where the sheets have been folded in a special way so that no one can get into it. People make apple-pie beds for other people as a joke.
applesauce 1. cooked, crushed apples used as a dessert or as baby food; 2 (informal) nonsense upset the apple cart to cause problems for somebody or spoil their plans, arrangements, etc.
the Big Apple New York City

B–BANANA
top banana the most important person in an organization; the boss
banana belt a region where the weather is warm
banana skin something that could cause difficulty or embarrassment, especially to somebody in a public position; an event or situation likely to cause difficulty or make one look foolish (from a typical humorous situation in British comedy, in which a person slips on a banana skin and falls over)
banana split a cold dessert made from a banana that is cut in half lengthwise and filled with ice cream, whipped cream, nuts, etc.

C–CHERRY
the cherry on the top/the cherry on the cake the final thing that makes something perfect; something else that is pleasant to have, in addition to what is expected
to cherry-pick to choose the best people or things from a group and leave those which are not so good
cherry picker a type of tall crane which lifts people up so that they can work in very high places
another bite at the cherry/second bite at the cherry another chance to do something, an opportunity to do something again

D–DATE
date a sweet sticky brown fruit with a hard narrow seed inside that grows on a tree called a date palm, common in Africa and Asia

E–ELDERBERRY
owoc bzu czarnego
The berries are ripe when the clusters begin to turn upside down. Avoid picking berries that have become over-ripe. Wash well and strip from the stalks using a dining fork. The berries can be added to apple pie (40 elderberries: 60 apple) or blackberry jam (50:50). The elderberry is often known as the Englishman’s grape, and it’s nutritional values show that it is similar to the grape, but for safety reasons do not use the leaves, bark or roots of elder.
They can be poisonous!!!

F–FIG
fig a soft fruit with purple or green skin and a lot of small seeds inside
not worth a fig worth nothing
not care/give a fig about/for something not to care at all about something I don’t care/ give a fig (for) what you think = I don’t care at all

G–GRAPE
Grape Nuts a type of breakfast cereal, made from wheat, which is hard and crunchy
grapevine an unofficial way of spreading news
on/through the grapevine by talking in an informal way to other people
sour grapes pretending to dislike what one really desires, because it is unobtainable; used to show that you think somebody is jealous and is pretending that something is not important: He said he didn’t want the job anyway, but that’s just sour grapes

H–HUCKLEBERRY
huckleberry a small soft round purple North American fruit. The bush it grows on is also called a huckleberry

I–INDIAN FIG
owoc opuncji figowej

J–JUNIPER
jałowiec
juniper a low bush with purple berries that are used in medicine and to flavour gin; its prickly leaves remain green all year long

K–KIWI/KIWI FRUIT
kiwi (informal) somebody from New Zealand

L–LEMON
lemon a thing that is useless because it does not work as it should; something you buy (especially a car) that does not work properly = dud
lemon a stupid person = idiot
lemon curd a thick sweet yellow substance made from lemon, sugar, eggs and butter, spread on bread, etc. or used to fill cakes

M–MEDLAR
nieśplik
medlar a brownish European fruit. It occurs in middle and southern England as a small, muchbranched, deciduous tree. The flowers are white or pink-tinged, with five petals. The fruit is globular but depressed above, with leafy, persistent sepals, and contains stones of a hemispheric shape. It is not fit to eat until it begins to decay; then it takes on an agreeable acidic and somewhat astringent flavour. Several varieties are cultivated.

N–NUT
nut (slang) a person’s head or brain
nut/nutter a strange or crazy person; (in compounds) a person who is extremely enthusiastic about a particular sport, subject or activity, etc.: a fitness/tennis/computer, etc. nut
nutty slightly crazy: I’ve got some nutty friends
in a nutshell/put something in a nutshell to say or express something in a very clear way, using few words; used for saying that you are going to express something in a simple, direct way

O–ORANGE
Agent Orange a poisonous chemical used by US soldiers during the Vietnam War to remove the leaves from forests so that they could see the enemy. It caused birth defects in many Vietnamese children, and after the war about 60 000 former US soldiers complained of illnesses.

P–PEANUT
peanut butter a soft, thick food made from peanuts which in the US is often made sweeter with sugar, and is usually spread on bread or toast. Creamy or smooth peanut butter is made from finely ground peanuts and crunchy peanut butter contains some larger pieces of nut. In the US, peanut butter and jelly sandwiches (= a sandwich containing peanut butter and fruit jam) are popular, especially with children.
peanut gallery the rows of seats at the back of a theatre or cinema, usually on a raised platform, where the seats are cheap
peanuts a very small amount of money, so small that is not worth considering: She gets paid peanuts for doing that job.

Q–QUINCE
pigwa
quince a hard bitter yellow fruit used for making jam, etc. It grows on a tree, also called a quince.

R–RASPBERRY
raspberry (Bronx cheer) a rude sound made by sticking out the tongue and blowing: to blow a raspberry at somebody

S–STRAWBERRY
strawberry mark a reddish area of skin present from birth; birthmark

T–TANGERINE
tangerine a type of small sweet orange with loose skin that comes off easily

U–UNRIPE
unripe not yet ready to eat: unripe fruit

V–VINE; VINE FRUIT
vine, grapevine, a climbing plant with a woody stem that produces bunches of juicy green or purple fruit (grapes)
vineyard a piece of land where grapes are grown in order to produce wine; a business that produces wine from the grapes it grows

W–WALNUT
walnut an edible nut (shaped like a human brain; with a knobbly surface–having small round lumps) with a hard round shell in two halves

X–XMAS FRUITCAKE
Xmas/Christmas cake heavy cake containing a lot of dried fruit covered with marzipan and icing (hard sugar), traditionally eaten in Britain at Christmas
Christmas pudding heavy sweet dish containing a lot of dried fruit and often covered with burning brandy, served hot at the end of dinner on Christmas Day

Y- YUMMY FRUIT
yummy tasting very good; very good to eat, delicious

Z–ZEST
zest the outer skin of an orange or lemon used for giving a special taste to food, esp. when it is grated and used in making cakes

FRUITS IN PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

An apple a day keeps the doctor away–apples (fruit in general) are good for your health
- They’re packed with vitamins and minerals.
- They can help you to maintain a healthy weight.
- They’re an excellent source of fibre and antioxidants.
- They help reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke and some cancers.
- They taste delicious and there’s so much variety to choose from.
the apple doesn’t fall/never falls far from the tree a child usually behaves in a similar way to his or her parent(s)
the apple of somebody’s eye a person or thing that is loved more than any other. If somebody is the apple of your eye, this means that you like them very much: “My grandson is the apple of
my eye”.
the rotten apple injures its neighbour/it takes only one rotten apple to spoil the barrel it takes only one bad thing to mar everything else and ruin things as a whole
apples and oranges used to describe a situation in which two people or things are completely different from each other = like chalk and cheese: They really are apples and oranges
go bananas to become wild or angry
brown as a berry means that someone is very tanned
old chestnut a story, a joke or an idea that has been repeated so often that it has lost its novelty is referred to as an old chestnut
play gooseberry If you play gooseberry, you join or accompany two people who have a romantic relationship and want to be alone. “They invited me to join them but I didn’t want to play gooseberry”
Life isn’t a bowl of cherries! life isn’t all fun and gaiety or brightly coloured and sweet!
A cherry year, a merry year; a plum year, a dumb year
Are you nuts?!/to go nuts
to say that a person has gone nuts means that they have become completely foolish, eccentric or mad
He’s as nutty as a fruitcake completely crazy
Oranges and Lemons
an old English children’s song about the sounds of church bells in various parts of London. It is often part of a game that young children play: two of them form an arch with their arms and the rest take turns running under the arch until one of them is caught when the arch falls at the end of the song.
get the rough end of the pineapple to be treated in an unfair way
peach a person or thing that is greatly admired: a peach of a hat (=a very fine or attractive one)
peachy fine, very nice
plum job or position many people wish they could have it because it is very good
Walnuts and pears you plant for your heirs.

FRUIT IN ART, LITERATURE AND MUSIC

Inanimate objects such as fruit, flowers, food and everyday items are painted as the main focus of interest in still lifes. The term derives from the Dutch ‘stilleven’, which became current from about 1650 as a collective name for this type of subject matter. Still life painting– later called ‘natures mortes’–was particularly popular in the Netherlands during the 17th century and was often associated with material decay and the futility of worldly life. Still lifes with this interpretation are known as ‘vanitas’ or ‘memento mori’. Fruits were symbols of fertility and abundance understood as wealth and success. Nothing lasts for ever, that is why among beautiful, tasty fruits you can see overripe and rotten ones.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo (also spelled Arcimboldi) best known for creating imaginative portrait heads made entirely of such objects as fruits, vegetables, flowers, fish, and books, that is, he painted representations of these objects on the canvas arranged in such a way that the whole collection of objects formed a recognizable likeness of the portrait subject. The bizarre works of Arcimboldo, especially his multiple images, were rediscovered in the early 20th century by Surrealist artists like Salvador Dali.
Vertemnus by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A masterpiece of fantasy and virtuoso imagination. The mythical Vertemnus is the god of seasons, change and plant growth, as well as gardens and fruit trees. He could change his form at will. The god of harvests and abundance is in fact a bizarre portrait of the Habsburg Emperor Rudolf II.
Garden of the Earthly Delights (c. 1500) by Hieronymus Bosch

Bosch’s most famous and unconventional picture is The Garden of Earthly Delights which, like most of his other ambitious works, is a large, 3-part altarpiece, called a triptych. This painting was probably made for the private enjoyment of a noble family. It is named for the luscious garden in the central panel, which is filled with cavorting nudes and giant birds and fruit. The triptych depicts the history of the world and the progression of sin. Beginning on the outside shutters with the creation of the world, the story progresses from Adam and Eve and original sin on the left panel to the torments of hell, a dark, icy, yet fiery nightmarish vision, on the right. The Garden of Delights in the centre illustrates a world deeply engaged in sinful pleasures.
Still Life with Oranges and Walnuts 1772 by Meléndez
A melon and a stack of oranges swell with ripeness behind a plate of walnuts that look ready for cracking. Despite the subtle range of colour used here, there’s still much to appeal to the eye and, of course, to the stomach.
Fruit Displayed on a Stand about 1881-82 by Gustave Caillebotte
Caillebotte delighted in unusual vantage points and compositions. This close-up view of fruit stacked on a market stand creates a bold pattern of repeated forms and colours, while the sensuous brushstrokes suggest the lusciousness of the fruit.
Apples, Peaches, Pears, and Grapes; Still Life with Plate of Cherries; Still Life with Apples; Still Life with a Basket (Kitchen Table) 1890-95 by Cezanne
Most of Cezanne’s pictures are still lifes. These were done in the studio, with simple props: a cloth, some apples, a vase or bowl and, later in his career, plaster sculptures. Cézanne’s still lifes are both traditional and modern. The fruits and objects are readily identifiable, but they have no aroma, no sensual or tactile appeal and no other function other than as passive decorative objects coexisting in the same flat plane.
Still life 1888 by Teofil Kwiatkowski
Still life with Fruit and a Knife 1909 by Józef Pankiewicz
Basket with Fruit 1923 by Tadeusz Makowski

The Bible
Eden, Garden of Eden the garden where, according to the Bible, Adam and Eve, the first human beings, lived before their disobedience to God. It is thought of as a place or state of complete happiness
the Tree of Knowledge the tree in the Garden of Eden whose fruit Adam and Eve were forbidden by God to eat. When they ate the fruit and learned about the difference between good and evil, they were made to leave the Garden of Eden.
A Clockwork Orange a novel (1962) by Anthony Burgess which was made into a film by Stanley Kubrick in 1971. The story is set in the future and is about a young man, Alex, who loves violence and the music of Beethoven. The characters all speak a future version of English invented by the author.
The Grapes of Wrath a book by John Steinbeck which describes the hard conditions faced by farmers who had to move away from their land in the central US during the Depression of the 1930s. It was made into a successful film.
Peanuts a very popular US comic strip which has also appeared in many newspapers all over the world. It was drawn by Charles Schulz (1922–2000) and was first published in 1950. It is about children who talk like adults, and the characters include Charlie Brown, his dog Snoopy, his pushy friend Lucy and her nervous little brother Linus.
Tutti Frutti (Italian for all fruits) was Little Richard’s first hit record, released in 1955. With its opening cry of “Womp-bomp-a-loom-op-awomp-bam-boom!” and its hard-driving sound and wild lyrics, it became not only a model for many future Little Richard songs, but also one of the models for rock and roll. The song has been covered by many musicians. Elvis Presley recorded the song and it was included on his first album on March 23, 1956. Queen regularly played it during their live shows in 1986.
Strawberry Fields Forever is a song recorded at the end of 1966 by The Beatles, and released at the beginning of 1967. Widely considered to be one of the group’s best recordings, it is also one of the defining works of the psychedelic rock genre. The song is known to have been composed chiefly by Lennon, except for Mc-Cartney’s introduction. Strawberry Fields was a children’s orphanage in Lennon’s hometown of Liverpool, England. The building is gone but the stone gateposts bearing the name “Strawberry Fields” remain and are a popular tourist attraction.
Strawberry Fields is a 2.5 acre landscaped section in New York’s Central Park that is dedicated to the memory of musician John Lennon, and named after his song.
The Cranberries are an Irish alternative rock band that rose to mainstream popularity in the 1990s.
Tangerine Dream is a German electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese
Lemon Tree is a song recorded by Fool’s Garden; released in 1995 became a major international hit in 1996. The single reached number 26 in the UK charts and remained at number one for several weeks in Germany
Elderberry Wine by Sir Elton Hercules John (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight )
Adam’s Apple by Aerosmith
Agent Orange by Depeche Mode
I’m going bananas sung by Madonna I’m going bananas, And I feel like my poor little mind is being devoured by piranhas, For I’m going bananas.

Elżbieta Zatorska
FELBERG branch in Łódź
 

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